Music Business

MLC to audit Spotify, others on behalf of Songwriters & Publishers [Full List]

The Mechanical Licensing Collective (MLC) has put Spotify, Apple, Amazon, and a long list of music streamers on notice that they will be audited for music used between January 1, 2021, and December 31, 2023, the first three years of full MLC operations.

By sending audit notices to both the U.S. Copyright Office and Digital Service Providers (DSPs), The MLC is exercising a right granted by Congress in the Music Modernization Act (MMA) to conduct audits to ensure that royalties have been accurately reported and paid.

Should an audit reveal an underpayment, the MLC will distribute it to impacted rightsholders, and the streamers will cover the cost of the audits as required by the MMA.

“Ensuring DSPs have reported royalties accurately is one of The MLC’s statutory responsibilities under the MMA,” says Kris Ahrend, Chief Executive Officer of The MLC. “The MLC has tapped music industry audit veteran Jane Bushmaker, a member of The MLC’s Analytics & Automation team, to oversee DSP audits, which will be conducted by experienced outside audit firms.”

The full list of MLC audits of DSPs

·        Amazon Media Venture LLC (AMP)

· Services LLC (Amazon Music)

·        Anghami FZ LLC (Anghami)

·        Appcompanist, LLC (Appcompanist)

·        Apple Inc. (Apple Music)

·        Artist Technology Group DBA PANTHR Music (PANTHR Music)

·        Audiomack Inc. (Audiomack)

·        Avail LLC (The Cover Foundry)

·        Beatport LLC (Beatport)

·        Bill Graham Archives, LLC (Wolfgang’s Music)

·        Boxine GmbH (Tonies)

·        Choral Tracks LLC (Choral Tracks)

·        Classical Archives, LLC (Classical Archives)

·        Da Capo Music, LLC (Yes! Fitness Music)

·        Deezer S.A. (Deezer)

·        Fan Label, LLC (FanLabel)

·        Global Tel*Link Corporation (GTL)

·        Google, LLC (Google Play Music/YouTube)

·        GrooveFox Inc. (GrooveFox)

·        IDAGIO GmbH (Idagio)

·        iHeartMedia + Entertainment, Inc. (iHeart Radio)

·        M&M Media, Inc. (Trebel)

·        Midwest Tape, LLC (hoopla)

·        Mixcloud Ltd (Mixcloud)

·        MONKINGME S.L. (MonkingMe)

·        Music Choice (Music Choice)

·        Napster Group PLC (Napster)

·        Naxos Digital Services US Inc. (NAXOS)

· Enterprises, Inc. (

·        Pacemaker Music AB (Pacemaker)

·        Pandora Media, LLC (Pandora)

·        PianoTrax LLC (PianoTrax)

·        Power Music, Inc. (Power Music)

·        PRIMEPHONIC B.V. (Primephonic)

·        Recisio SAS (Karaoke Version)

·        Saavn Media Limited (Jiosaavn)

·        Securus Technologies, LLC (Securus)

·        Slacker, Inc. (Slacker/LiveXLive)

·        Smithsonian Institution (Smithsonian Folkways Recordings)

·        Sonos, Inc. (Sonos)

·        SoundCloud Operations Inc. (Soundcloud)

·        Spotify USA Inc. (Spotify)

·        TIDAL Music AS (Tidal)

·        Transsnet Music Limited (Boomplay)

·        TRIBL, LLC (Tribl)

·        Ultimate Guitar USA LLC (

·        Weav Music, Inc. (Weav Run)


·        Yoto Ltd (Yoto)

Bruce Houghton is the Founder and Editor of Hypebot, a Senior Advisor at Bandsintown, President of the Skyline Artists Agency, and a Berklee College Of Music professor.

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